Your résumé is one of the most important tools you have when looking for a job. This page will help you choose the right type of résumé for your situation. It will also provide you with tips to help you tailor your résumé to the job you’re applying for, and to make sure it stands out in a crowd for all the right reasons.
What is a résumé?
A résumé is a short, point-form document that you give to employers to tell them about your work experience, education, and skills. Before you write your résumé, you may want to complete a skills inventory to know what skills you have to offer an employer. http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/media/skills_inventory.shtml
Types of résumés
Depending on your work experience, the job you’re applying for, or your personal preference, you may want to use a particular type of résumé. Here are three types of résumés to choose from:
A functional résumé focuses on your skills
If you haven’t had a lot of work experience, a functional résumé that focuses on your skills is a good way to market yourself to potential employers.
Instead of focusing on your previous work experience, a skills-focused résumé highlights the transferable skills you gained from previous jobs, activities, experiences, or volunteer work.
It’s most commonly used when you’ve had a large gap in your employment history, or if you have never worked before.
- Example of a functional résumé http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/topics/jobs/ex_functional_resume.shtml
- Template of a functional résumé http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/topics/jobs/tp_functional_resume.shtml
A chronological résumé focuses on your experience
Focusing on your work history is one of the more popular ways to structure a résumé. It shows employers all your work experience, focusing on positions you’ve held and your past responsibilities and accomplishments.
The chronological résumé is organized with your most recent information first. The goal is to give a comprehensive work history, organized by each job you’ve held. You give your position title, place of employment, how long you worked there, and a breakdown of your responsibilities or accomplishments.
This is a great multi-purpose résumé that works for most job applications, including retail.
- Example of a chronological résumé http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/topics/jobs/ex_chronological_resume.shtml
- Template of a chronological résumé
A hybrid résumé is a combination of the two
A hybrid résumé is also known as a combination résumé. It combines the elements of a functional and chronological résumé to create a résumé that focuses heavily on skills, but also includes dates, titles of previous jobs, along with essential information about the position.
This is a good résumé to use when you want to prioritize your skills but also demonstrate how your career has evolved.
- Example of a hybrid résumé http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/topics/jobs/ex_hybrid_resume.shtml
- Template of a hybrid résumé
Important information to include in your résumé
There are a variety of different headings you can use in your résumé, depending on what type of résumé you choose to write.
However, regardless of the type of résumé you choose, here are three of the most important things it should include:
Your personal information
The first thing your employer should see when looking at your résumé is your name. Make sure it is clear, stands out, and is easy to read.
Your résumé should include your full address, contact phone numbers, and an e-mail address that incorporates your first and last name.
Things you should not include on your résumé:
- your height, age, weight
- a photo of yourself
- your Social Insurance Number
List your education, starting with the most recent, and work backwards from there. Include the name of the school, the city or town where each school you attended is located (secondary and beyond), and the years you completed.
Be sure to list any certificates or diplomas you received, including those for mini-courses like computer or software courses, first aid, or any other training that might be useful in the job you are applying for.
Skills and experience
Use your résumé to show where you worked, what you learned, and how your skills and experience apply to the job you’re applying for. Highlight abilities, skills, and experience that relate to the job you’re applying for. These can come from paid or unpaid work, volunteer experience, and even hobbies.
If all of your experience is in an unrelated field to the job you’re applying for, focus on the transferable skills you learned that can be applied to the new job you’re applying for.
When listing your work experience, include the location (city, province) and the dates you worked (month, year) for each job or volunteer position. Use action words to describe what you did in the positions you held. Focus on the top-five duties for each job.
Other relevant information
You may also want to include your job goals, the languages you speak, or any relevant achievements or awards. You can also include interests or activities that say something positive about you. Don’t forget, however, that the point of your résumé is to show why you are the right person for the job.
There are no official rules for what headings you should include on your résumé. Just remember to keep it concise, with the most important information at the top.
- Let’s say you are applying for a job in software development and, although you have never worked in that field, you have a diploma in software engineering. In this case, be sure to put your education section at the top.
- If you are applying to work in the food services industry and you have a lot of experience working in restaurants, be sure to list that information before your education details.
Top-10 résumé tips
- Think ahead. If you wait until the last minute to hand in your résumé, you could miss the deadline and risk not being considered for the job.
- Tailor your résumé. Include information on your résumé associated with the job you are applying for.
- Chunk it out. If there is a lot of information, break it into separate sections with specific headings.
- Use action words. Focus on things you have accomplished, and avoid starting every sentence with “I”.
- Proofread. Never rely on spell check.
- Repeat Tip 5. Seriously, even one misspelled word could put you in the “do not consider” pile. Have someone you trust also proof your document!
- Make it presentable. Make sure your résumé looks clean and organized. Use white, letter-sized paper (8.5 x 11-inch) and a font that’s easy to read, like Times New Roman or Arial.
- Keep it concise. Try to keep your résumé as short as possible—ideally one page, two pages maximum.
- Be honest. Lying on your résumé is never a good idea. Many people who lie on their applications end up losing their jobs when their employers find out the truth.
- Be professional.Remember, this is a business document, so don’t include unnecessary embellishments like flashy paper or a picture of yourself.
Before you try to convince an employer that you’re the person they need to hire, you should identify all the skills you have to offer. It’s a lot harder to talk about your strengths if you don’t know what they are in the first place!
Find your transferable skills
Everything you learn and every skill you have is part of your personal tool kit. You carry these “tools” with you as you move through school and into the job market. When you develop a skill or gain experience in one place and put what you’ve learned to use someplace else, you’re using transferable skills.
Look through the following lists and check off every skill that you think you have.
- meet deadlines
- supervise others
- solve problems
- teach others and give clear instructions
- manage people
- organize and manage projects
- speak in public
- accept responsibility
- plan daily work or special events
- follow instructions
- generate creative solutions to problems
- assemble kits
- build or repair things
- work well with my hands
- operate tools or machinery
- use complex equipment
- drive or operate vehicles
- inspect and maintain equipment or vehicles
- make a budget, manage money
- record facts, classify information by date
- analyze data, audit and maintain records
- check information for accuracy
- pay attention to details
- investigate and clarify results
- locate answers, gather information
- calculate or compute
- take inventory
- keep financial records
- research and write reports
- arrange meetings or social functions
- be competitive when necessary
- make decisions
- direct the work of others
- help set goals for my team
- explain things to others
- solve problems
- motivate people
- settle disagreements
- plan activities and put them into action
- take risks when necessary
- organize and chair a meeting
- show self-confidence
- help and care for others
- manage conflicts, resolve issues
- counsel people
- be tactful and diplomatic
- interview people
- be kind and understanding
- be a good listener
- be outgoing
- show patience
- be pleasant and sociable
- supervise, teach
- be tough when necessary
- trust people
- trust my instincts
- be artistic
- write short stories or articles
- draw or create other art
- express myself through music, poetry, or art
- design posters, draw cartoons and illustrations
- perform and act
- present artistic ideas
- dance, create body movement
- use computers to create presentations
- design and layout Web pages
- clearly express myself
- talk easily with others
- create and talk about new ideas
- design presentations
- be inventive
- conduct research in a library or on the Internet
- set up my own network of experts or helpers
- be logical
- speak in public
- write clear and concise reports
- work well with others
Find your hidden skills
You may have some valuable skills that you haven’t thought about including on your résumé. Follow these six steps to identify your hidden skills:
1) List all your previous and current experiences, at work and in other contexts.
When you think about your skills, don’t just consider paid work. You can also draw from extracurricular activities at school, time spent volunteering, and even hobbies.
2) Describe the tasks you completed using action words for each experience.
For example, suppose you worked in a coffee shop. You might describe the tasks you completed like this:
- I followed recipes, mixed ingredients, set temperatures, baked muffins, and mixed a variety of hot and cold coffee and tea drinks.
- I worked with complex equipment.
- I operated a cash register, made change, and balanced the day’s receipts.
- I worked with others under sometimes busy or stressful situations.
3) Identify the skill(s) required to complete those tasks.
Your list of skills might look something like this:
- manual skills
- computer skills
- financial and number skills
- teamwork and patience skills
4) List other things you learned to do in that job.
Other things you learned working in the coffee shop include how to:
- manage your time responsibly and organize your work
- serve customers in a professional and friendly way
- display products so people will buy them
5) Identify the skills you gained from the other things you learned.
Your list of skills might look something like this:
- time management skills
- customer service and communication skills
- marketing and promotional skills
6) Build strong sentences by combining the skills you developed with the tasks you completed.
- I developed marketing and creative skills while designing window displays to attract customers.
- I developed communication skills while serving customers and working with my co-workers.
- I developed promotional skills while helping customers decide what to order.
- I developed financial skills while making change, ordering inventory, and balancing the day’s receipts.
Find your job-related skills
Job-related skills are those that you need for a particular job. An office worker needs computer and keyboarding skills, a mechanic has to understand repairs and how to use tools, and a cashier must be able to make change and use a cash register. When you’re about to apply for a specific job, review your lists of skills and highlight the ones that are most relevant to the job you’re applying for. Once you have these elements, put them together into a résumé that will work for you.